What is Alkalosis?
|Respiratory Alkalosis is caused by low carbon dioxide
levels in the blood; this can be due to a Fever, being at a High Altitude;
a Lack of Oxygen; a Liver disease; a Lung disease, which causes you to
breathe faster and hyperventilate and Salicylate poisoning; for Alkalosis
caused by hyperventilation, breathing into a paper bag allows you to keep
more carbon dioxide in your body, which improves the Alkalosis and if
your oxygen level is low, you may receive oxygen; Respiratory Alkalosis
is commonly found in patients with Asthma, Pneumonia & Pulmonary problems.
There are two types of Respiratory Alkalosis Acute and Chronic; Acute Respiratory Alkalosis occurs rapidly and during Acute Respiratory Alkalosis, the person may lose consciousness where the rate of ventilation will resume to normal; Chronic Respiratory Alkalosis is a more long standing condition; for every 10 mM drop in pCO2 in the blood, there is a corresponding 5 mM of bicarbonate ion drop; the drop of 5 mM of bicarbonate ion is a compensation effect which reduces the Alkalosis effect of the drop in pCO2 in the blood and this is termed metabolic compensation.
|Metabolic Alkalosis is a state where there is too much
bicarbonate in the blood and it can be caused by prolonged vomiting, resulting
in a loss of hydrochloric acid with the stomach content; severe dehydration
and the consumption of alkali are other causes; Metabolic Alkalosis can
also be caused by administration of diuretics and endocrine disorders
such as Cushing's syndrome; compensatory mechanisms for metabolic alkalosis
involve slowed breathing by the lungs to increase serum carbon dioxide,
a condition leaning toward Respiratory Acidosis,
which often accompanies the compensation of Metabolic Alkalosis, and vice
versa, a delicate balance is created between these two conditions.
Metabolic Alkalosis is usually accompanied with Hypokalemia, causing muscular weakness, Myalgia and Muscle Cramps, owing to disturbed function of the Skeletal Muscles, and Muscle Spasms, from the disturbed function of smooth muscles; it may also cause Hypocalcemia; as the pH of blood increases, the protein in the blood becomes more ionised into Anions; this causes the free calcium present in blood to bind strongly with protein; if severe, it may cause Alkalotic Tetany.